Where they got into the shales and the carbonates, they dug deep and wide. Where they found quartzite and other metamorphic rock, they encountered tough resistance. Sometimes, working down into the country, they came to the arching quonset roofs of anticlines, and slicing their way through quartzite found limestones within. It was like slicing into the foil around a potato and finding the soft interior. The water would remove the top of the arch, dig a valley far down inside, and leave quartzite stubs to either side as ridges flanking the carbonate co-working space breda valley. Streams eroding headward ate up the hillsides back into the mountainsides, digging grooves toward the nearest divide. On the other side was another stream, doing the same. Working into the mountain, the two streams drew closer to each other until the divide between them broke down and they were now confluent, one stream changing direction, captured. In this manner, some thousands of streams-consequent streams, pirate streams, beheaded streams, defeated streams-formed and re-formed, shifting valleys, making hundreds of water gaps with the general and simple objective of finding in the newly tilted landscape the shortest possible journey to the sea. A gap co-working space almere abandoned by its streams is called a wind gap. In the regional context, the water gap of the Delaware River is a little less phenomenal than it once appeared to be.
Two continents met to make the Urals. India, at unusual speed, hit Tibet. Eras before that, South America, Africa, and Europe had, as one, hit North America and made the Appalachians. The suture was probably the Brevard Zone, a long, northeast-trending fault zone in the southern Appalachians with very different rock types on either side and no discernible matchup of offset strata. Discontinuous extensions of the Brevard Zone seemed to reach to the Catoctin Mountains and conference room breda on to Staten Island. Southeastern Staten Island apparently was a piece of the Old World. Ships that sailed for Europe had arrived when they went under the bridge. Plate theory was constructed in ten years by people with hard data who were consciously and frankly waxing “geopoetical” as well. Once the essentials of the theory were complete-after the discovery of seafloor spreading had led to an understanding of trench subduction, and after the plates and their motions had finally been outlined and described-the theory took a metaphysical leap into the sancta of the gods, flaunting its bravado in the face of Yahweh. It could make a scientist uncomfortable. Instead of reaching back in time from rock to river to mountains that must have been thereand then on to inference and cautious conjecture in the dark of imperceivable unknowns-this theory by its conception, its nature, and its definition was applying for the job of Prime Mover. The name on the door changed. There was no alternative. The theory was panterrestrial, panoceanic. It was the past and present and future of the world, sixty miles deep. It was every scene that ever was on earth. Either it worked or it didn’t. Hoist it was to heaven with its own petard. “Established” there, it looked not so much backward from the known toward the unknown as forward from the invisible to its product the surface of the conference room almere earth. Anita was more worried than made hostile by all this. By no means did she reject plate theory out of hand. There were applications of it with which she could not agree. Moreover, it was too fast a vehicle for its keys to be given to children.
One day, Van Allen went alone to hunt in the woods near the river islands of the Minisink, and he discharged his piece in the direction of a squirrel. The creature scurried through the branches of trees. Van Allen shot again. The creature scurried through the branches of other trees. Van Allen reloaded, stalked the little bugger, and, pointing his rifle upward, sighted with exceptional care. He fired. The squirrel fell to the ground. Van Allen retrieved it, and found an arrow through its co-working space breda heart. By the edge of the river, Winona threw him a smile from her red canoe. They fell in love. In the Minisink, there was no copper worth mentioning. Van Allen didn’t care. Winona rewrote the country for him, told him the traditions of the river, told him the story of the Endless Mountain. In the words of Winona’s legend as it was eventually set down, “she spoke of the old tradition of this beautiful valley having once been a deep sea of water, and the bursting asunder of the mountains at the will of the Great Spirit, to uncover for the home of her people the vale of the Minisink.” In i664, Peter Stuyvesant, without a shot, surrendered New Amsterdam and all that went with it to naval representatives of Charles, King of England. Word was sent to Hendrik Van Allen to close his mines and go home. It was not in him to take an Indian wife to Europe. He explained these matters to Winona in a scene played out on the cliffs high above the Water Gap. She jumped to her death and he followed.
On foot at the base of the cliffs-in the gusts and shattering noise of the big tractor-trailers passing almost close enough to touch-we walked the narrow space between a concrete guard wall and the rock. Like the river, we were moving through the mountain, but in the reverse direction. Between the mirroring faces of rock, rising thirteen hundred feet above the water, the gap was so narrow that the interstate had been squeezed in without a shoulder. There was a parking lot nearby, where we had left the car-a Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area parking co-working space almere lot, conveniently placed so that the citizen-traveller could see at point-blank range this celebrated natural passage through a mountain wall, never mind that it was now so full of interstate, so full of railroad track and other roadways that it suggested a convergence of tubes leading to a patient in Intensive Care.
As the night returned to quiet and the ground ceased to move, Anita recovered whatever composure she had lost, picked up her deck of cards, and said to herself, “That’s the way it goes, folks. The earth’s a very shaky mobile thing, and that’s how it works. Apparently, the mountains around here are flexplek huren breda still going up.” Later, she would say, “We were taught all wrong. We were taught that changes on the face of the earth come in a slow steady march. But that isn’t what happens. The slow steady march of geologic time is punctuated with catastrophes. And what we see in the geologic record are the catastrophes. Look at a graded sandstone and see the bedding go from fine to coarse. That’s a storm. That’s one storm-when the water came up and laid the coarse material down over the fine. In the rock record, the tranquillity of time is not well represented. Instead, you have the catastrophes. In the Southwest, they live from one catastrophe to another, from one flash flood to the next. The evolution of the world does not happen a grain at a time. It happens in the hundred-year storm, the hundred year flood. Those things do it all. That earthquake made a catastrophist of me.” No one knew where the bears went when they left the Gallatin Range. When they came back, they were covered with mud.
Catastrophism in another form presented itself that autumn when Jack Epstein was transferred to the office of the Geological Survey’s Water Resources Division in Alexandria, Louisiana. There was no position for flexplek huren almere Anita, and she could not have had a job even if one had been open, for it was a rule of the Survey that spouses could not work for the same supervisor. The Alexandria office was small, and included one supervisor. Her nascent geological career was suddenly aborted. She taught physics and chemistry in a Rapides Parish high school. In the summer that followed, she worked for the state government as an interviewer in the unemployment office. She did her geology when and where she could. Driving home from work, she saw people dressed like signal flags hitting golf balls on fake moraines.
Anita Harris is a geologist who does not accept all that is written in that paragraph. She is cool toward aspects of plate tectonics, the novel theory of the earth that explains mountain belts and volcanic islands, ocean ridges and abyssal plains, the deep earthquakes of Alaska and the shallow earthquakes of a fault like the San Andreas as components of a unified narrative, wherein the shell of the earth is divided into segments of varying size, which separate to form oceans, collide to make mountains, and slide by one another causing buildings to fall. In a revolutionary manner, plate-tectonic theory burst forth in the nineteen-sixties, and Anita Harris is worried now that the theory is taught perhaps too glibly in schools. In her flexplek huren enschede words: “It’s important for people to know that not everybody believes in it. In many colleges, it’s all they teach. The plate-tectonics boys move continents around like crazy. They publish papers every year revising their conclusions. They say that a continental landmass up against the eastern edge of North America produced the Appalachians. I know about some of the geology there, and what they say about it is wrong. I don’t say they’re wrong everywhere. I’m open-minded. Too often, though, plate tectonics is oversimplified and overapplied.
Book 2: In Suspect Terrain I get all heated up when some sweet young thing with three geology courses tells me about global tectonics, never having gone on a field trip to look at a rock.” As she made these comments, she was travelling west on Interstate 80, approaching Indiana on a gray April morning. She had brought me along to “do geology,” as geologists like to say-to see the flexplek huren nijmegen countryside as she discerned it. Across New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, she had been collecting, among other things, limestones and dolomites for their contained conodonts, index fossils from the Paleozoic, whose extraordinary utility in oil and gas exploration had been her discovery, with the result that Mobil and Chevron, Amoco and Arco, Chinese and Norwegians had appeared at her door. She was driving, and she wore a railroad engineer’s striped hat, a wool shirt, blue jeans, and old split hiking boots-hydrochloric acid for testing limestones and dolomites in a phial in a case on her hip. With her high cheekbones, her assertive brown eyes, her long dark hair in twin ponytails, she somehow suggested an American aborigine. Of middle height, early middle age, she had been married twice-first to a northern-Appalachian geologist, and now to a southern-Appalachian geologist. She was born on Coney Island and grew up in a tenement in Williamsburg Brooklyn. There was not a little Flatbush in her manner, soul, and speech.
More data, and increased sophistication in the analysis of data, began to show that polar-wander curves-once thought to be in agreement worldwide -could differ some from continent to continent. Curves based on Paleozoic and Triassic rock in North America and in Europe looked much alike but, oddly, stood separate in the way that a single line will appear to be double in inebriate vision. The gap corresponds to the present width of the Atlantic Ocean. The flexplek huren breda opening of the Atlantic began in the Triassic. If the hypothesis of continental drift had long been overshadowed by the hypothesis of polar wander, the reverse would before long be true. Researchers in paleomagnetism at Cambridge University concluded that their data were showing them that both hypotheses could be correct, as later research at Princeton would confirm. The poles indeed had wandered. The continents had moved as well. The phenomenon of “apparent polar wander” had been caused, right enough, by the movement of masses of land, but concomitantly the earth had rolled-and patterns of “true polar wander” were seen to be superimposed on all the other motions of the shifting surface of the world. But what motions? If the continents had drifted, then in what manner were they drifting? Where had they come from and where were they going? What would happen if two should collide? Since they obviously were not plowing through solid basalt, how in fact did they move? It was all within a decade-1960-1968-that these questions were given answers of startling cohesion, as not only paleomagnetists but seismologists and oceanographers, geologists and geophysicists, whose specialties had been diverging through time, suddenly drew together around new flexplek huren almere outpourings of information and produced a chain of scientific papers whose interlocking insights would for most geologists fundamentally adjust their understanding of the dynamics of the earth. “It was a change as profound as when we gave up the Biblical story,” Deffeyes said as he tapped his collector into the ground. “It was a change as profound as Darwinian evolution, or Newtonian or Einsteinian physics.”
“In the infinite variation of the breed, that form best adapted to the exercise of the instinctive arts, by which the species is to live, will most certainly be continued in the propagation of this animal, and will be always tending more and more to perfect itself by the natural variation which is continually taking place. Thus, for example, where dogs are to live by the swiftness of their feet and the sharpness of their sight, the form best adapted to that end will be the most certain of zakelijke energie remaining, while those forms that are less adapted to this manner of chase will be the first to perish; and, the same will hold with regard to all the other forms and faculties of the species, by which the instinctive arts of procuring its means of substance may be pursued.” When he died, in i797, Hutton was working on that manuscript, no part of which was published for a hundred and fifty years. People who admired Hutton’s theory of the earth became known-because of the theory’s igneous aspects, its molten basalts and intruding granites-as vulcanists or plutonists, and they quickly grew to be the intellectual enemies of the We merian neptunists, and others who believed that God had made the world through a series of catastrophes, notably the Noachian flood. The schism between these two groups would carry well into the nineteenth and even into the twentieth century, the ratio gradually reversing. In i8oo, the Huttonians were outnumbered at least ten to one. In fact, a Wemertrained neptunist took over the chair of natural history at the University of Edinburgh and for many years neptunism was official in Hutton’s own city. All this can be presumed to have bestirred John Playfair, a handsome, zakelijke energie vergelijken life-loving, and generous man of “mild majesty and considerate enthusiasm,” as a contemporary described him. Never mind that the contemporary was his nephew. With all those neptunists and men of the cloth on the one side and his friend’s prose on the other, the battle to Playfair must have seemed unjust, and he betook himself to alter the situation.
The date of the effective beginning of the antagonism was the seventh of March, 1785, when Hutton’s theory was addressed to the Royal Society in a reading that in all likelihood began with these words: “The purpose of this Dissertation is to form some estimate with regard to the time the globe of this Earth has existed.” The presentation was more or less off the cuff, and ten years would pass before the theory would appear (at great length) in book form. Meanwhile, the Society required that Hutton get together a synopsis of what was read on March 7th and finished on April 4, i 785. The present quotations are from that abstract.
We find reason to conclude, ISt, That the land zakelijke energie on which we rest is not simple and original, but that it is a composition, and had been formed by the operation of second causes. 2dly, That before the present land was made there had subsisted a world composed of sea and land, in which were tides and currents, with such operations at the bottom of the sea as now take place. And, Lastly, That while the present land was forming at the bottom of the ocean, the former land maintained plants and animals . . . in a similar manner as it is at present. Hence we are led to conclude that the greater part of our land, if not the whole, had been produced by operations natural to this globe; but that in order to make this land a permanent body resisting the operations of the waters two things had been required; 1st, The consolidation of masses formed by collections of loose or incoherent materials; 2dly, The elevation of those consolidated masses from the bottom of the sea, the place where they were collected, to the stations in which they now remain above the level of the ocean …. Having found strata consolidated with every species of substance, it is concluded that strata in general have not been consolidated by means of aqueous solution . . . . It is supposed that zakelijke energie vergelijken the same power of extreme heat by which every different mineral substance had been brought into a melted state might be capable of producing an expansive force sufficient for elevating the land from the bottom of the ocean to the place it now occupies above the surface of the sea ….
In the Basin and Range are the wellwashed limestones of clear and sparkling shallow Devonian seas. There are dark, hard, cherty siltstones from some deep ocean trench full of rapidly accumulating Pennsylvanian guck. There are Triassic sediments rich in fossils, scattered pods of Cretaceous granite, Oligocene welded tuffs. There is not much layer-cake geology. The layers have too often been tortured by successive convulsive events. The welded tuffs were the regional surface when basin-range faulting began. And for more than twenty million previous years they had been the surface, the uppermost rock, with scant relief in the topography of these vast volcanic plains, whose great size and barren aspect are commensurate with the magnitude of zakelijke energie the holocaust that brought the rock onto the land. Up through pe1;haps a hundred fissures, dikes, chimneys, vents, fractures came a fmiously expanding, exploding mixture of steam and rhyolite glass, and, in enormous incandescent clouds, heavier than air, it scudded [across the landscape like a dust storm. The volcanic ash that woulCl someday settle down on Herculaneum and Pompeii was a light powder compared with this stuff, and as the great ground-covering clouds oozed into the contours of the existing landscape they sent streams hissing to extinction, and covered the streambeds and then the valleys, andwith wave after wave of additional cloud-obliterated entire drainages like plaster filling a mold. They filled in every gully and gulch, cave, swale, and draw until almost nothing stuck above a blazing level plain, and then more clouds came exploding from below and in unimpeded waves spread out across the zakelijke energie vergelijken plain. Needless to say, every living creature in the region died. Single outpourings settled upon areas the size of Massachusetts, and before the heavy ash I stopped flowing it had covered twenty times that. Moreover, it was hot enough to weld.
Now with each westward township the country thickens, rises-a thousand, two thousand, five thousand feet-on crumbs shed off the Rockies and generously served to the craton. At last the Front Range comes to view-the chevroned mural of the mountains, sparkling white on gray, and on its outfanning sediments you are lifted into the Rockies and you plunge through a canyon to the Laramie Plains. “You go from one major geologic province to another and-whoa!-you really know you’re doing it.” There are mountains now behind you, mountains before you, mountains that are set on top of mountains, a complex score of underthrust, upthrust, overthrust mountains, at the conclusion of which, through another canyon, you come into the Basin and Range. Brigham Young, when he came through a neighboring canyon and saw rivers flowing out on alluvial fans from the wall of the W asatch to the flats beyond, made a quick decision and said, “This is the place.” The scene suggested settling for it. The zakelijke energie vergelijken alternative was to press on beside a saline sea and then across salt barrens so vast and flat that when microwave relays would be set there they would not require towers. There are mountains, to be sure-off to one side and the other: the Oquirrhs, the Stansburys, the Promontories, the Silver Island Mountains. And with Nevada these high, discrete, austere new ranges begin to come in waves, range after range after north-south range, consistently in rhythm with wide Rat valleys: basin, range; basin, range; a mile of height between basin and range. Beside the Humboldt you wind around the noses of the mountains, the Humboldt, framed in cottonwood -a sound, substantial, year-round-Rowing river, among the largest in the world that fail to reach the sea. It sinks, it disappears, in an evaporite plain, near the bottom of a series of fault blocks that have broken out to form a kind of stairway that you climb to go out of the Basin and Range. On one zakelijke energie step is Reno, and at the top is Donner Summit of the uplifting Sierra Nevada, which has gone above fourteen thousand feet but seems by no means to have finished its invasion of the sky.